The Dangers of Genetic Modified Foods

Below is a news article that was in USAtoday. As you can see the article refers to genetically modified foods entering the human food chain. If you are unaware they are already in our food chain and unless you are going to great lengths to avoid them then you are consuming GMO food items. Read below an interesting response. You should note the author suggested just to stop consuming meat which is just a stupid answer and on that should not be considered.

Eat healthy rather than genetically modify food

Patrice Green, M.D. – Baltimore

Eat healthy rather than genetically modify food As a physician, I am deeply troubled by the Food and Drug Administration’s proposed regulations that would allow genetically modified animals to be sold for human consumption. We have no idea how this would affect human health, wildlife, domesticated animals or the environment (“FDA moves on genetically altered animals,” News, Friday ).

The most disturbing part is that producing genetically engineered animals is completely unnecessary.

There is no need to use gene modification to make the meat from a pig contain nutrients such as omega-3 fatty acids (a healthy fat) when we can easily leave unhealthful foods off our plates.

Replacing meat, egg and dairy products with low-fat, high-fiber vegetarian foods is a simple solution for improving America’s health. Numerous scientific studies have demonstrated the wide-ranging benefits of a plant-based diet, including lower rates of obesity, diabetes, heart disease and several cancers.

Consumers deserve to know whether the food they purchase came from genetically modified plants or animals, but knowing about the role of good nutrition in overall health, weight management and disease prevention could be even more beneficial to their well-being.

There was one post in reply to this that interest me….

“I have only one response. Show me one, just one, credible study that shows any risk, much less proven harm, from genetically modified meat or produce? There is the rub, you cannot. All of the hype and worry is based on unfounded fears and probably to much time watching horror films. Modifying an animal or plant genetically is not any different than what farmers and ranchers have done for thousands of years with thier selective breeding and cross pollination. The only difference is that it is much MORE controlled without the risks involved in the trial and error process.

Next time you try to incite fear and uncertainty into the general public, do a bit of research first.”

Just one?

First the FDA refuses to test GMO for safety even though it would be required under US law.

Now some studies….

Schubbert, R., Lettmann, C. and Doerfler, W. (1994) Ingested foreign (phage M13) DNA survives transiently in the gastrointestinal tract and enters the blood stream of mice. Molecules, Genes and Genetics 242, 495-504.

Schubbert, R. Hohlweg, U., Renz, D. and Doerfler, W. (1998) On the fate of orally ingested foreign DNA in mice: chromosomal association and placental transmission in the fetus. Molecules, Genes and Genetics 259, 569-576.

Mercer, D.K., Scott, K.P., Bruce-Johnson, W.A., Glover, L.A. and Flint, H.J. (1999) Fate of free DNA and transformation of oral bacterium Streptococcus gordonii DL1 plasmid DNA in human saliva. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 65, 6-10.

Redenbaugh, K., Hatt, W., Martineau, B, Kramer, M., Sheehy, R., Sanders, R., Houck, C. and Emlay, D. (1992) A case study of the FLAVR SAVRTM tomato. In: Safety Assessment of Genetically Engineered Fruits and Vegetables. CRC Press, Inc. Boca Raton.

Padgette, S.R. Taylor, N.B., Nida, D.L., Bailey, M.R., MacDonald, J., Holden, L.R. and Fuchs, R.L. (1996) The composition of glyphosate-tolerant soybean seeds is equivalent to that of conventional soybeans. Journal of Nutrition 126, 702-716.

Taylor, N.B., Fuchs, R.L., MacDonald, J.,Shariff, A.B. and Padgette, S.R. (1999) Compositional analysis of glyphosate-tolerant soybeans treated with glyphosate. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry 47, 4469-4473.

Lappe, M.A., Bailey, E.B., Childress, C. and Setchell, K.D.R. (1999) Alterations in clinically important phytoestrogens in genetically modified, herbicide-tolerant soybeans. Journal of Medical Food 1, 241-245.

Hashimoto, W., Momma, K., Katsube, T., Ohkawa, Y., Ishige, T., Kito, M., Utsumi, S. and Murata, K. (1999) Safety assessment of genetically engineered potatoes with designed soybean glycinin: compositional analyses of the potato tubers and digestibility of the newly expressed protein in transgenic potatoes. Journal of Science of Food and Agriculture 79, 1607-1612.

Momma, K., Hashimoto, W., Ozawa, S., Kawai, S., Katsube, T., Takaiwa, F., Kito, M, Utsumi, S. and Murata, K. (1999) Quality and safety evaluation of genetically engineered rice with soybean glycinin: Analyses of the grain composition and digestibility of glycinin in transgenic rice. Bioscience Biotechnology Biochemistry 63, 314-318.

Berberich, S.A., Ream, J.E, Jackson, T.L., Wood, R., Stipanovic, R., Harvey, P., Patzer, S. and Fuchs, R.L. (1996) The composition of insect-protected cottonseed is equivalent to that of conventional cottonseed. Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry 44, 365-371.

Novak, W.K. and Haslberger, A.G. (2000) Substantial equivalence of antinutrients and inherent plant toxins in genetically modified novel foods. Food and Chemical Toxicology 38, 473-483.

Hammond, B.G., Vicini, J.L., Hartnell, G.F., Naylor, M.W., Knight, C.D., Robinson, E.H., Fuchs, R.L. and Padgette, S.R. (1996) The feeding value of soybeans fed to rats, chickens, catfish and dairy cattle is not altered by genetic incorporation of glyphosate tolerance. Journal of Nutrition 126, 717-727.

Harrison, L.A., Bailey, M.R., Naylor, M.W., Ream, J.E., Hammond, B.G., Nida, D.L., Burnette, B.L., Nickson, T.E., Mitsky, T.A., Taylor, M.L, Fuchs, R.L. and Padgette, S.R. (1996) The expressed protein in glyphosate-tolerant soybean, 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase from Agrobacterium sp. strain CP4, is rapidly digested in vitro and is not toxic to acutely gavaged mice. Journal of Nutrition 126, 728-740.

Teshima, R., Akiyama, H., Okunuki, H., Sakushima, J-i, Goda, Y., Onodera, H., Sawada, J-i and Toyoda, M. (2000) Effect of GM and Non-GM soybeans on the immune system of BN rats and B10A mice. Journal of Food Hygiene Society of Japan 41, 188-193.

Pusztai, A., Grant, G., Bardocz, S., Alonso, R., Chrispeels, M.J., Schroeder, H.E., Tabe, L.M. and Higgins, T.J.V. (1999) Expression of the insecticidal bean alpha-amylase inhibitor transgene has minimal detrimental effect on the nutritional value of peas fed to rats at 30% of the diet. Journal of Nutrition 129, 1597-1603.

Hashimoto, W., Momma, K., Yoon, H.J., Ozawa, S., Ohkawa, Y., Ishige, T., Kito, M., Utsumi, S. and Murata, K. (1999) Safety assessment of transgenic potatoes with soybean glycinin by feeding studies in rats. Bioscience Biotechnology Biochemistry 63, 1942-1946.

Fares, N.H. and El-Sayed, A.K. (1998) Fine structural changes in the ileum of mice fed on delta-endotoxin-treated potatoes and transgenic potatoes. Natural Toxins 6, 219-233.

Ewen, S.W.B. and Pusztai, A. (1999b) Effects of diets containing genetically modified potatoes expressing Galanthus nivalis lectin on rat small intestine. The Lancet 354, 1353-1354.

Pusztai, A., Ewen, S.W.B., Grant. G., Peumans, W.J., van Damme, E.J.M., Rubio, L., Bardocz, S. (1990) Relationship between survival and binding of plant lectins during small intestinal passage and their effectiveness as growth factors. Digestion, 46 (suppl. 2), 308-316.

Noteborn, H.P.J.M., Bienenmann-Ploum, M.E., van den Berg, J.H.J., Alink, G.M., Zolla, L., Raynaerts, A., Pensa, M. and Kuiper, H.A. (1995) Safety assessment of the Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal crystal protein CRYIA(b) expressed in transgenic tomatoes. In: ACS Symposium series 605 Genetically Modified Foods – Safety Issues, Eds. Engel, K.H, Takeoka, G.R. and Teranishi, R. Chapter 12, pp. 135-147. American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C.

Nordlee, J.A., Taylor, S.L., Townsend, J.A. and Thomas, L.A. (1996) Identification of a Brazil nut allergen in transgenic soybean. New England Journal of Medicine 334, 688-692.

Bindslev-Jensen, C. and Poulsen, L.K. (1997) Hazards of unintentional/intentional introduction of allergens into foods. Allergy 52, 1184-1186.

Burks, A.W. and Fuchs, R.L. (1995) Assessment of the endogenous allergens in glyphosate-tolerant and commercial soybean varieties. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 96, 1008-1010.

Bernstein, I.L., Bernstein, J.A., Miller, M., Tierzieva, S., Bernstein, D.I., Lummus, Z., Selgrade, M.K., Doerfler, D.L. and Seligy, V.L. (1999) Immune responses in farm workers after exposure to Bacillus thuringiensis pesticides. Environmental Health Perspectives 107, 575-582.

Vazquez-Padron, R.I., Moreno-Fierros, L., Neri-Bazan, L., Martinez-Gil, A.F., de la Riva, G.A. and Lopez-Revilla, R. (2000) Characterization of the mucosal and sytemic immune response induced by Cry1Ac protein from Bacillus thuringiensis HD 73 in mice. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research 33, 147-155.

O’Neil, C., Reese, G. and Lehrer, S.B. (1998) Allergenic potential of recombinant food proteins. Allergy and Clinical Immunology International 10, 5-9.

Metcalf, D.D., Astwood, J.D., Townsend, R., Sampson, H.A., Taylor, S.L. and Fuchs, R.L. (1996) Assessment of the allergenic potential of foods derived from genetically engineered crop plants. In: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 36(S):S165-186. CRC Press Inc. Boca Raton, USA.

Nakamura, R. and Matsuda, T. (1996) Rice allergenic protein and molecular-genetic approach for hypoallergenic rice. Bioscience Biotechnology Biochemistry 60, 1215-1221.

Ok…. I think you get the idea


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